London (MEE) – Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s first day in London saw him lunch with Queen Elizabeth, visit the Churchill War Rooms and meet with Theresa May at Downing Street, as a fierce political row over UK military support for Riyadh threatened to overshadow the Saudi royal’s first official visit to the UK.

A crowd of around 200 anti-war protesters gathered outside Downing Street on Wednesday evening, as the crown prince and the British leader held a bilateral meeting following a day of fierce debate in parliament.

theresa may defends saudis
UK Prime Minister Theresa May in Saudi Arabia
Image: Flickr – CC – Number 10

The protest came as the UK government launched a major charm offensive in a bid to use the visit to move beyond long-standing defence to a more far-reaching partnership.

It comes amid mounting criticism that May’s government is overlooking human rights concerns in the kingdom and the war in Yemen to “plug the hole in trade and growth” caused by the UK’s upcoming exit from the European Union.

Wednesday afternoon saw May and bin Salman hold the first meeting of the newly announced UK-Saudi Arabia Strategic Partnership Council, as the UK moved to formally back the crown prince’s Vision 2030 project.

The Downing Street meeting saw the two leaders agree to a “landmark ambition” for around £65bn ($90bn) in investment, including new Saudi investment in the UK, in what officials called a “significant boost for UK prosperity”.

Welcome for recent reforms

The new investment includes an education agreement, a Downing Street spokesman said, as protesters shouted outside amid tight security.

May “welcomed recent reforms” in Saudi Arabia during the meeting, but reportedly also noted “particular concerns” over the case of Raif Badawi, a Saudi blogger who was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for setting up a website focused on the social and political debate.

Bin Salman also received a briefing from UK security officials on Wednesday. It included a briefing on Yemen, where the UK is a major international backer of the Saudi intervention.

Related: Saudi Arabia’s “Vision 2030”: Bin Salman’s High-Risk Privatization Plan

The UK has licenced more than $6.4bn in arms to Saudi Arabia since the start of the war in Yemen in 2015, including advanced jets and munitions.

The conflict has killed more than 10,000 people – many of them civilians who died in Saudi-led coalition air strikes. Millions more civilians face starvation and disease in a humanitarian crisis aid agencies say has largely been ignored by world powers.

The conflict has reached an effective stalemate. It includes a blockade that the UN says has left more than eight million civilians facing a famine.

The government spokesman said that May had raised “deep concerns” about the humanitarian situation in the country; however, this is unlikely to satisfy critics, including those at the protest outside Downing Street who called for a “blockade” and “sanctions” on Saudi Arabia over the conflict.

Speaking outside, Lindsey German, chair of the left-wing Stop the War Coalition, described May as a “disgusting woman” and called Bin Salman a “murderous bastard”.

Bin Salman’s first official engagement on Wednesday was a trip to Buckingham Palace to see Queen Elizabeth – a rare honour usually reserved for heads of state. He was expected to return to the royal household for dinner with Prince Charles later in the day and is due to visit the prime minister’s country residence on Thursday for more talks.

Related: New Poll Shows 2/3 of Brits Want Leaders to Stop Arming Saudis

Cries of shame

Earlier on Wednesday afternoon, Labour and other opposition politicians cried “shame” as May defended the UK’s defence relationship with Saudi Arabia in parliament.

“The link that we have with Saudi Arabia is historic, it is an important one, and it has saved the lives of potentially hundreds of people in this country,” she said.

She added that she would be “raising issues of human rights” with the crown prince, but in fiery exchanges with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, she was accused of “colluding” in war crimes in Yemen.

“Germany has suspended arms sales to Saudi Arabia, but British arms sales have increased sharply and British military advisers are directing the war,” Corbyn said.

During the back and forth between the two politicians, Corbyn, who has repeatedly called for a halt to arms exports to Saudi Arabia, said that British military officers were “directing the war” in Yemen.

Related: UK Labour Party Bars Saudi Arabia from its Conference Over War Crimes

“As she [May] makes her arms sale pitch, will she also call on the crown prince to halt the shocking abuse of human rights in Saudi Arabia?” he said.

Shadow foreign secretary Emily Thornberry later added that arms sales to Saudi Arabia are “trying to plug the hole of trade and growth” caused by Brexit, in an intervention that prompted jeers from government ministers.

May’s spokesman later said British personnel had no role in carrying out air strikes, were not involved in directing or conducting the operation in Yemen, and were not involved in Saudi targeting decisions.

However, Royal Air Force (RAF) officers are based at the Saudi-led coalition in Riyadh and the British Army has provided training to Saudi ground forces.

The UK government has also overseen a 75 percent increase in opaque open arms export licences, which have served a vital role in keeping Saudi military planes in the air over Yemen, as revealed by MEE earlier this week.

‘Stop the war, hands off Yemen’

Protests out Downing Street on Wednesday were smaller than expected, but police confirmed one arrest after a Bahraini activist threw an egg at a vehicle as bin Salman’s motorcade arrived in Downing Street.

This occurred as several hundred protesters heard speeches from opposition politicians and anti-war campaigners, including Labour MP Chris Williamson, who urged May to used British influence to help bring the war in Yemen to an end.

He told the crowd: “Britain used to be the pride of the world for promoting human rights. Now, there is no despotic government anywhere in the world that this government will not deal with.”

Ameen Nemer, 38, a Saudi exile from east of the country who attended the protest, told MEE: “My message to Bin Salman is for him to stop the war, hands off Yemen and stop arresting and executing peaceful activists and campaigners inside Saudi Arabia.”

He added: “He’s being hailed by the London press as a reformer, and letting women drive is a welcome first step, but what he calls reform… I don’t call reform. Real reform would be to allow civil society, let the people make decisions and call for elections. There is nothing in Vision 2030 about political reforms.”

At a counter-protest of around 50 pro-Saudi activists, including many Yemenis, Arwh Ahzzah, told MEE she had turned out to “support the crown prince”.

Related: UK Government ‘Woos’ Saudi Arabia With $2bn Loan

“He is helping Yemen and I support Saudi bombing. Yemen needs to be protected from the Houthis,” said the activist, who is originally from Taiz.

This post was written by Jamie Merrill and was originally published by Middle East Eye